Phenological phases

European beech (Fagus silvatica L.)

Leaf appearance

Closed buds


The defined stage of leaf appearance

The buds have flushed and the green of the new leaves are clearly visible.

beech_leaf_02 beech_leaf_03

After the defined stages of leaf appearance

The new leaves are unfolded and the leaf blade is fully visible.

beech_leaf_04 beech_leaf_05

Photos: Erwin Ulrich


The flowers of male (staminate) inflorescence (hanging catkins) are open and begin to release yellow pollen. (On windy days the release of pollen is visible).

Male flowering


Photo: Robert Bruegger

Female flowering


Photo: Robert Bruegger

Autumn colouring in European beech

Leaves have changed their colour from green to yellow, yellow-brown or red-brown. Often single leaves are only partly autumn coloured. The estimation on autumn colouring refers to the whole leaf area of the tree, including the leaves that have already fallen down during the colouring period, in relation to the state before colouring starts.

Autumn colouration


Photo: Astrid Vasella