Phenological phases

Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.)

Needle appearance

The phenological phase to be recorded is defined as the stage at which the needles in each bundle (e.g. two for Scots pine) become separately visible, after the buds/new shoots have elongated and the needle bundles have started to separate.

The defined stage of needle appearance

spruce_needles_01 spruce_needles_02

Photos: Egbert Beuker / Robert Breugger

Needle appearance

Flushing is at the defined stage at the midle picture.




Photos: Jouko Lehto


The flowers of male (staminate) inflorescence are open and begin to release yellow pollen. On windy days the release of pollen is visible. When releasing pollen, male (staminate) inflorescence are red, wine-red or yellow-brown, later on the colour changes to yellow of yellow-brown.

spruce_flowering_01 spruce_flowering_02

Photos: Teijo Nikkanen


Damage by late spring frost

spruce_damage_01 spruce_damage_02

Photos: Jouko Lehto